|英文名称： Plate Tectonics and Evolution of Tibetan Plateau
Plate tectonics is the integrated theory of how the large-scale geologic structures on Earth are created. Plates are created where they separate and recycled where they converge, in a continuous process of creation and destruction. The lithosphere—Earth’s strong, rigid outer shell of rock—is broken into about a dozen plates, which slide by, converge with, or separate from each other as they move over the weaker, ductile asthenosphere. Continents, embedded in the lithosphere, drift along with the moving plates. The theory of plate tectonics describes the movement of plates and the forces acting between them. This moving and other related concepts cause all the physical features that we see on the planet: mountain ranges, deep canyons, large continents separated by wide and deep oceans. To begin our explanation of the key elements of plate tectonics theory, we will learn about the physical and chemical structures of the earth, three types of plate boundaries, subduction zones and other special locations on plates. We will see how continents break apart, how they collide, and what makes plates move. Because plate tectonics theory is geology’s grand unifying theory, it is now an essential foundation for the discussion of all geology.
Collision between India and Asia was perhaps the most spectacular geological event to occur over the last 500 million years ago (Ma). However, although there are numerous records of ocean closures and continental collisions in geological history, the connection between India and Asia has attracted a great deal of attention because of the resultant formation of the vast and high-altitude Tibetan Plateau. The ongoing process of collision also affected Tibet as well as central and southeast Asia. As a result, collision between India and Asia as the resultant formation of the Tibetan Plateau likely includes a number of unique processes of both continental collision and mechanisms of intracontinental deformation. The initial collision between India and Asia also provides important data to studies of continental lithospheric deformation, environmental change, and paleoaltitude reconstruction. Thus, this collision has significance to our understanding of plate tectonics, continental dynamics, and multilayer interactions. It will cover the following topics:
Condie KC., Plate Tectonic and Crustal Evolution fourth edition, Butterworth/Heinemann, 1997. Marshak, S., Essentials of Geology Fourth Edition, W.W. Norton&Company New York, London